Daniel 8:3-14 Commentary—Understanding Daniel 8:3-14: The Greek Conquest of Persia is signified by a Goat Trampling a Ram.
In this vision, Greece’s conquest of Persia is signified by a goat trampling a ram. Interestingly in v. 5, the goat is said to “cross the whole earth without touching the ground.” In other words, the goat had not “trampled on” the earth as it had “trampled on” the rest of the Persian Empire. As stated earlier, throughout the Book of Daniel and Revelation, earth and land are metaphors for the land of Israel while sea represents the Gentile nations. The fact that this goat, representing Greece, crossed the whole earth without touching the ground may symbolize the fact that Alexander the Great did not attack Israel while overthrowing the Persian Empire. Though Alexander the Great left Israel unscathed, Antiochus Epiphanes was not as gracious.
*I stand corrected. Apparently some historicists view the little horn in Daniel 8 as also being the Antichrist. F.N. Lee discusses this in “Christians Overcome Papacy and Islam,” which is available here (starts at page 20). Further food for thought.